## Tuesday, August 27, 2013

### Logical Interview Question and Answers

Q :At the end of the day one market stall had 16 apples and 48 oranges left. Another market stall had 36 apples and 24 oranges left. What is the difference between the percentages of apples left in the two market stalls?
35%.
First stall 16 out of 64 = 25%.
Second stall 36 out of 60 = 60%.
Difference in percentages = 35%.

Q. In a right angled triangle, if the lengths of the two shortest sides are whole numbers exactly and the length of the hypotenuse is 40 cm, what are the lengths of the two shortest sides?
24 cm and 32 cm (Pythagoras).
40 cm2 = 1600
242 = 576
322 = 1024
= (576=1024)= 1600.

Q. Today was Roma’s birthday. She turned 24. Roma is twice as old as Ramu was when Roma was as old as Ramu now. How old is Ramu now?
Ramu is 18 years old.
24 - x years ago Roma was x years old
And now she is 24.
24 - x years ago Ramu was x - (24 - x) years old.

Q. A company hires a fleet of buses to transport its workforce to a conference. If 689 workers attended the conference, and each bus seats 35 passengers, how many buses are required?
20 buses 665 people sit on the first 19 buses and the remainder (24) travel on the last bus.

Q. A car travels the first half of a motorway journey at an average speed of 40 mph, and the second half of the journey at an average speed of 60 mph. What is the average speed for the entire journey?
48 mph.
Say the journey takes 120 miles.
The first half of the journey (60 miles) takes 60÷40 = 1.5 hours.
The second half takes 60/60 = 1.0 hour.
So, the journey of 120 miles takes 1.5 + 1.0 = 2.5 hours and therefore, the average speed is 120÷2.5 = 48 mph.

Q. Which two words are opposite in meaning?
severity, caution, incite, calm, impulse, wonder, stand, dismiss
incite, calm.

Q. Which five–letter word can be placed in front of each of these words to make new words?
– – – – – RUNNER
– – – – – AGE
– – – – – LINE
– – – – – RANK
– – – – – MAN
FRONT

Q. Out of 100 women surveyed leaving Harrods, 83 had a white bag, 77 had black shoes, 62 carried an umbrella and 95 wore a ring. What is the minimum number of women who must have had all four items?
17.
Add the number of items together, which gives 83 + 77 + 62 + 95 = 317 among 100 women.
This gives three items to each and four items to 17 of these women.
The least number of women to have all three items is, therefore, 17.

Q. Insert three body parts (each three letters long) into the gaps to complete the words below
W– – – Y
E– – – Y
T– – – E
ear, leg and rib, to make weary, elegy and tribe.

Q. What is an orris?
a. pepper
b. horse
c. flower
d. architrave
c. flower

Q. In a consignment of eggs 552 were cracked, which was 12 percent of the total consignment. How many eggs were in the consignment?
4600
(552 ÷ 12) × 100.

Q. A man has 53 socks in his drawer: 21 identical blue, 15 identical black and 17 identical red. The lights are fused and he is completely in the dark. How many socks must he take out to make 100 per cent certain he has a pair of black socks?
40 socks.
If he takes out 38 socks, although it is very unlikely, it is possible they could all be blue and red. To make 100 per cent certain that he also has a pair of black socks he must take out a further two socks;

Q. A box contains 12 marbles of three different colours green, yellow and blue-4 each, If you were to close your eyes and pick them at random, how many marbles must you take out to be sure that there are at least two of one colour among the marbles picked out?
In the first three pickings you may get 1 of each colour, on the 4th pick there will be at least two of one colour. Therefore,the answer is 4.

## Thursday, July 18, 2013

### Tips For IAS UPSC Mains Exam and Interview

1.INSTRUCTIONS GIVEN AT THE BEGINNING OF THE QUESTION PAPERS SHOULD BE READ CAREFULLY.
2.Preparations for Mains examination should be done intensively.
3.It always helps if the choice of the optionals for the Prelims examination is one of the subjects chosen for the Mains.
4.After analysis/taking the decision on the options, one should sort out the Main question papers according to the syllabus topics of the Mains examination. If one analyses these questions, after sometime the questions are repeated in one form or the other. This will give you time to prepare a standard answer to the question papers of the previous years. This will also make your task easy at the Mains examination.
5.Questions asked are of the Masters level examination. Sometimes the questions are ‘conceptual’ in nature, aimed at testing the comprehension levels of the basic concepts. So, if you don’t have a basic grounding in the basic concepts, it would be advisable to start from simple books.
6.The right choice of reading material is important and crucial. You should not read all types of books as told by others. Get a list of standard textbooks from the successful candidates, or other sources and also select proper notes for studying.
7.One should always target for Mains even while preparing for Preliminary examination. This is because there is much in common ground for study and there is little time for preparation for the Main examination after the results of the Prelims examination are announced.
8.While studying for the optional subjects, keep in mind that there is no scope for selective studies in CSE. The whole syllabus must be completely and thoroughly covered. Equal stress and weightage should be given to both the optionals. Remember – in the ultimate analysis both subjects carry exactly the same amount of maximum marks.
9.For subjects like Mathematics and Statistics and Geography maps etc, practice is very important. One should also practice other subjects and should not treat the same examination, as an “experience gathering” exercise to get a chance for writing mains is a great thing, which one may not get again. Hence, you should go through the unsolved papers of the previous papers and solve them to stimulate the atmosphere of the examination. Stick to the time frame (roughly 1 minute for 2 marks. Speed is the very essence of this examination. Hence, time management assumes crucial importance.
10.Writing skills (packaging) matter a lot in the Civil Services. Most of the candidates appearing for the Mains examination have a lot of knowledge, but lack writing skills. They are not able to present all the information/knowledge in a coherent and logical manner, as expected by the examiner. It is not only what you write, that is important, but also how you write what you write.
11.For developing the writing skills, one should keep writing model answers while preparing for the Mains examination. This would help the candidate to “get into the groove” of writing under time pressure in the Mains examination. The attitude should never be “I will directly write in the examination”.
12.Develop and follow your own style of writing. Try not to be repetitive and maintain a flow in the style of your writing. Never try to imitate others in the style of writing.
13.Sequential and systematic style of answering comes after a lot of practice and analysis of standard answers. Try to stimulate the actual examination hours to judge your performance and to plug any loopholes.
14.Strictly adhere to the word limit as prescribed at the end of the question to the extent possible. Try not to exceed the word limit, as far as possible. Sticking to the word limit that will save time. Besides, the number of marks you achieve are not going to increase even if you exceed the word limit.
15.Revision of subjects is very important because “anything you could not revise prior to the examination is as good as not having prepared at all”. The reason is that you have been preparing for months or years together. It is a human tendency to forget something after some time. Hence, revision is a must.
16.Write it legibly as it will simplify the evaluator’s task and he can read the answers easily.
17.Highlight/underline the important points, which you feel, are important.
18.If the write up is in essay form, write in paragraphs. A new point should start with a new paragraph.
19.If the question needs answer in point form, give it a bullet format.
20.Keep sufficient space between two lines.
21.Try to maintain uniformity in your write-ups throughout the paper. Some students write well in the initial papers. Under time pressure, the script goes from bad to worse in the later stages of the answer sheets and gets bad treatment. This may irritate the evaluator.
22.Don’t count words after every answer. If you have practiced well, you can count “how many words do you write in a line and how many lines in a single page and the total words per question”.
23.Give space and divide it by a dividing line between two questions.
24.One should target 1200-1250/2000 marks in the Mains. The main cut off also varies from year to year.

Tips For Writing An Essay:

1.One is required to write an essay for three hours duration. This length of duration is enough. There is no standard word limit for writing an essay.
2.Remember to divide an essay into three parts – (i) Introduction (ii) Main body and (iii) Conclusion.
3.The choice of topic on which the essay is to be written after careful thought. While selecting a topic, the knowledge base of the topic – i.e how much you know about the subject is of crucial importance. If you have data or statistics at your fingertips to back some statements, all the more better.
4.The introduction is of crucial importance. Remember – well begun is half done. This applies to an essay all the more. One could begin with a saying or a quotation. Quotations make the essay interesting to read.
5.If you cannot mentally arrange the points to be covered in the essay, jot down the points on a rough sheet of paper. Try to expand one point in its entirety in one paragraph and then move on to the next point. Do not keep returning back to one point after you have started another point. It makes the essay repetitive and boring to read. If possible, try to maintain a link between the points by a connecting sentence at the end of the paragraph covering a given point.
6.Keep your sentences short. Longer sentences not only lead to complex sentences, but also point to complexity in thought process. Use minimum number of conjunctions. Finish off a sentence as quickly as possible and start a new sentence.
7.In an essay, try to point out the problem areas and also suggest solutions to solve them.
8.Conclusion is as important as an introduction. It gives an insight into your analyzing powers. Try to give a brief overview in the form of a gist of the essay in the conclusion

Tips For Personality Test:

Basics:

1.The interview is nowadays known as a Personality Test. The reason being that it is not a test of knowledge, but of the overall personality of the candidate/aspirant.
2.Interview is more of a psychological test that is just content-based. Along with good communicative skills and self-confidence, good knowledge base no doubt gives you an upper hand. However, it has to be borne in mind that nearly all the aspirants/candidates in the Personality Test start more or less as equals in the sphere of knowledge base.
3.The most important thing to know about an interview is that it is not always a question-answer session and that the Board members are looking for different aspects of one’s personality.
4.One is not expected to know everything under the sun. If you do not know the answer to a particular question, do not hesitate to say – I don’t know, Sir/Ma’m. However, even “I don’t know Sir/Ma’m” should be said confidently and with a reasonable amount of cheerfulness. Remember – your knowledge levels have been thoroughly checked during the earlier stages of the CSE – viz Prelims and Mains.
5.Always remember that the interview is not a cross examination, but a natural, purposeful conversation.
6.Personality is a life-long asset and a thing, which evolves and changes every day.
7.Preparation
8.Keep a photocopy of the form filled for the Mains examination handy. Most of the initial questions – viz the meaning of your name, educational background, professional experience, hobbies etc will be based on this form only. Try to prepare on your bio-data; roughly 70% questions are based on bio-data, 20% questions are based on your subject and 10% are based on current affairs.
9.Aspirants to CSE should take an intelligent interest not only in areas of their specialization, but also in what is happening around them – both within and outside the country.
10.Be well informed about your interests and hobbies as there will be a few questions probing your levels of knowledge as regards your hobbies and interests.
11.Prepare thoroughly about your hometown & home state. If you hail from a place of historical importance or tourist interest, prepare well on it.
13.One of the secrets of success is to prepare for the Personality Test along with the written test.
14.If a person gives the impression of being a bookworm, the chances of his/her selection are reduced. The candidate must exhibit an all-round personality, which indicates that the aspirant possesses a complete personality.

Mock / Practice:

15.One should form a group of 4-5 people, as the preparation for Personality Test cannot be done in isolation. Try holding as many mock interviews as possible.
16.No training institute can develop/transform your personality in a few days. However, some of the tips may help in ironing out some weaknesses/grey areas and can provide an avenue for a well-planned preparation and group discussions.
17.Take mock interviews. In the mock interview, ask your friends to grill you so that you can face pressure from the Board easily.
18.Discuss a lot with your friends. This not only helps in you assimilating different points of view, but also enhances knowledge levels.

Dressing Up:

19.Dress sense is of crucial importance. The choice of dress should be according to the weather conditions. Try not to wear newly stitched clothes, as they might make you uneasy. Light colours should be preferred. White colour is a good choice.
20.Wear comfortable clothes. Men need to wear light coloured shirt and a dark trouser with a tie (if weather permits). Women appear best in a saree or salwar/kameez.
21.Pay attention to the details, ironed dress, polished shoes, hair accessories, trimmed nails etc. Polish your footwear meticulously. Use convenient footwear like black or brown leather shoes.
22.Women candidates should take care to avoid the hair falling over the face as it could annoy both – you and the interviewer.
23.Do not wear anything that connects you with a religious or political group.
24.Do not use heavy perfume/deodorants.
25.In case you have a running nose or have caught a cold, carry a handkerchief, or sufficient stock of tissue paper. Tissue paper is preferable.
26.Some candidates take medicine to relax on the previous night of the interview; this should be avoided as the effect of medicine may decrease your alertness during the interview.
27.What and how you eat is also important. Have a light meal on the day of the Personality Test. Do not go for the interview on an empty stomach. However, also avoid over-eating, or having a heavy meal.
28.First impression is often the best impression. So create a positive, good impression within the first few minutes of the interview.

Entry:

29.Arrive 20-30 minutes early. Prepare a route map and arrive well in time. This will give you enough time to relax
30.While waiting for your turn in the waiting area, read a newspaper or a magazine and try to remain focused without thinking too much of what will happen in the interview. Try not to presuppose situations.
31.Do not get nervous when you are waiting for your turn for the Personality Test. When waiting for your turn, try relaxing with closed eyes and practice deep breathing. It really relaxes you. Do not try to pre-suppose situations in the Personality Test.
32.Take a final, deep breath before entering the boardroom.
33.Do not forget to knock at the door before entering, as it indicates basic courtesy.
34.On entering the room, greet all the members cordially and do not sit down on the seat without being asked to.
35.If there is a lady member in the interview board, greet her first.
36.Be conscious of your body language when you are seated.
37.Men should keep the feet flat on the floor during the interview, knees at waist level, and hands on your thighs and place your elbows on the armchair. Avoid locking hands.
38.Women, cross your ankles or legs, but keep the bottom leg straight down and do not swing it over the top leg and keep your elbows positioned on the arms of the chair.
39.When the Board members thank you at the end of the Personality test, do not forget to thank the members one last time and keep your body posture straight at the time of leaving the room.
40.Remember that interview is a two-way process.
41.Be cool. Be yourself during the Interview.
42.Your aim should be to make the board members feel comfortable in your presence.
43.Be truthful, transparent and Predictable.
44.The object of the interview is to assess the suitability of the aspirant/candidate for a career in public service.
45.Most of the questions posed in the Personality Test are opinion-based.
46.Don’t expect any expression on the faces of board members, even if your answer is very good.

During Interview:

47.In a personality test, what is of importance is how you say what you say. It is the style of presentation that matters.
48.Your personality is, on an average, assessed in 25-30 minutes, it is your responsibility to bring out your very best in front of the board.
49.Be attentive and listen to each question carefully. Try not to jump into an answer before the complete question has been posed as you will end up wasting time on answering a question that you were not actually asked. If you are not sure of what was asked, you can always politely seek a clarification.
50.Do not try to answer the question as soon as it is posed. Think over the question, take your time and organize the broad outline of the answer before airing it. Pause a while before answering, even if you know the answer.
51.At times, you will be given situations wherein you will be required to take a decision. In such situations, the board is testing your ability to comprehend issues and use reason and good judgment logically, precisely and arrive at a balanced decision.
52.Your replies should be crisp and to the point. Do not beat around the bush.
53.Maintain a gentle smile off and on during the Personality Test without overdoing it. It displays a sense of ease and confidence. Wherever possible use your sense of humour judiciously.

General Do’s and Don’ts for the personality test:

54.The board members are usually very senior and learned people, so give utmost respect to the board.
55.Don’t go by any stories/rumours spread by others. Avoid unnecessary details.
57.The board has no biases towards anyone.
58.Never make any sweeping statements/generalized descriptions.
60.Speak honestly, truthfully and modestly.
61.Do not give a hasty reply.
62.Answer in an orderly and logical fashion and always maintain eye contact with the Board members while answering.
63.Be polite and courteous.
64.Don’t try to be too argumentative.
65.Be consistent in your views. Don’t change your views just because the Board differs in its opinion from your opinion.
66.Never make an attempt to present a made-up appearance or politically correct answers.
67.If you are taking an extreme view, you should also be able to justify the same.
68.Take tea or coffee, if any member offers the same to you. This will show you are relaxed and it will also help in lightening and relaxing further proceedings and give them an informal touch.
69.Avoid chewing gums and other munching items as it gives a negative and a careless image.
70.Try holding mock interviews in front of a mirror. Look out for unwarranted actions/emotions and try to rectify any shortcomings. If possible record your own answers and play them again for finding out errors.
71.Don’t criticize any government policies or even individuals.
72.Take a good night’s sleep. A good, sound sleep will keep you refreshed, cheerful and relaxed. Otherwise you will have a fuzzy head and you will betray a confused personality. You will neither be able to grasp questions correctly, nor be able to think clearly.
73.Do not speak rapidly. Speak slowly and clearly so that the Board members grasp what you are saying and do not have to interrupt you or ask you to repeat your views.
74.The Board will check you for certain traits – such as honest and integrity, logical exposition, balance of opinion, leadership skills, mental alertness, variety and depth of interest, social cohesion, moral integrity, acumen, your response to a peculiar situation, your views on varied topics.
75.At times, the Board members might pile pressure upon you. Do not panic – it is a strategy aimed at gauging the point till which you can maintain your cool under pressure and can think originally even in pressure cooker situations. Try to resemble tealeaves – show your true colours when in hot waters.
76.Form your views on a subjects in a logical and rational manner supported by data whenever necessary.
77.To be in touch with the latest happenings/events – nationally and internationally, candidates should read magazines and newspapers (at least two for interview), watch current affairs-based television programmes.
78.Assume that all questions are asked with a good reason and answer them accordingly.
79.Keep a file/folder to keep your certificates and documents in an organized manner. They are verified before you enter the interview room. (You don’t have to carry file/folder inside board room)